The environmental health services are necessary and important to human communities. Hence, whenever these services are enhanced, their reflection would be positive on the community; and vice-versa.
Khartoum State represents the largest urban community,in population density on the level of the country So, since the mid- 1980s of the past century, and till now, the Khartoum State continued to witness major population mobility from most of the towns and rural areas of the country; for numerous reasons. The result was the disequilibrium in limited capacity of the services utilities. Thus, in the period of the study (1991-2003), the towns of Khartoum State became urban centres which are surrounded by squatter-housing extensions which were established by the migrant groups. This situation had caused the deterioration of the efficiency of the services utilities, especially health. For this reason, the environmental health programmes which were conducted by the Ministry of Health and the local councils, became non-effective,because of the population growth. Likewise, it became impossible to control the impact of the cultural, social and economic factors, on the environment. This was because each residential group had its social and cultural systems and traditions, which may not agree with the objectives of the services programmes. Under such situations,the role of the service apparatuses; such as, the local councils the social welfare institutions and the \\\\\\\'Takaful\\\\\\\' (Solidarity) funds, had greatly diminished.
In this instance, diseases; such as, malaria, dysentery, diarrhea, the pollution diseases and food poisoning became widely spread.
All this became an indicator for the deterioration of the environmental health services. To this extent, some questions had been posed … \\\\\\\'To what extent did that situation contribute to the deterioration of the standard of the environmental health services? What are the remedies which could be used to solve the problem? Can the specified administrative apparatuses which provide the environmental health services (the Ministry of Health and the Local Councils) mange such services alone, in an efficient way, under the policies of economic liberalization policies, privatization and globalization; or do they need the support and participation of the private, national and civil sectors?
This study answered these questions, in seven chapters. The topics of these chapters, targeted the knowing of the basic concepts which are related to the topic of the environmental heath services; such as the concept of public heath and the concept of the management of the services and the relation with public administration. The study also aimed at knowing the possibility of the use of the techniques and technologies of the public administration, in developing the environmental health services, which are no longer an independent trait. This is because there is a close link between them and the community cultural, social, economic and political components. Hence, the success of the environmental health services programmes, depends on the number of the general givings of the community. For this reason, the comprehensive view of the environmental health services management system, which had been presented by the newest theories in public health (i.e. the Comprehensive Theory), is the closest to success. Those (Comprehensive Theories) view that the public health programme; and other programmes; are only subsidiary systems which integrate with each other, to form the general system.
In that system, the variables and social factors exchange effects with other natural factors, according to processes which are governed by systems and techniques of public administration (planning, direction, control …), to give in the end, the positive effect which avail humans of achieving their ambitions, for a better life.
The study discussed the experiment of Khartoum State, in its supervisory level (the Ministry of Health) and the executive level (the Local Councils), in the management of those services. The study included the following hypotheses:-
=607; There is a progressive (positive) relation between the weakness of the budget which is specified for the environmental health services at the locality of Khartoum State; and the deterioration of the level of those services.
=607; The issue of the Local Government Acts, in closer periods, led to the instability of the Local Council of Khartoum State. This had lead to reducing their efficiency in the management of environmental health services. The opposite negatively affects those services.
=607; The non-efficacy of the present health statistics and its limitation. This had reduced the efficiency of the design of environmental health services.
The study confirmed those hypotheses, through the study and the analysis of the data, which were collected from several sources; in addition to the use of statistical methods, to measure the extent of the relation between two variables (the spearmannn\\\\\\\'s coefficient of correlation of the descriptive values. The result of these tests were the existence of a progressive relation (positive) between the weakness of the budget of the environmental health services, and the deterioration of the level of those services.
It was also proved that the successive use of the Local Government Acts (in closer periods), had negatively affected the stability of the Localities Councils, in Khartoum State. It was also confirmed, by the study, that the population growth of Khartoum State, had affected the environmental health services.
In addition to the results of the tests which are mentioned above, the study found out that the participation of the local community, in the environmental health services programme, is weak. It also reached the conclusion that the weakness of the social and cultural organizations\\\\\\\' structure, and the diminishing of their role in the community, had negatively affected those services. Meanwhile, on the side of the impact of the population growth, on the environment, the study found out that none of the instructional maps of Khartoum State was completed. At the same time, the health and biological census system, had a weak impact on the design of the services programme.
According to those results, the study presented a number of recommendations. Of the most important of these are: the necessity to find additional financing sources, for the environmental health services, the importance of strengthening the social and cultural institutions, to play their role in building the element of transparency in the community. It is also important to care for the stability of the Localities Councils, because they represent the base for the services projects.
As for the population growth in Khartoum State, the study recommended some remedies, for immediate implementation; such as, the use of vertical residential complexes. For the other timely remedies, the most important of these are: the need to solve the constraints which face the implementation of the instructional (or directive) maps, the introduction of health education in educational syllabuses and mass-media programmes.
Finally, it could be said that the environmental health topic, became of the major topics around which the movement of community rotates. Therefore, its theoretical and applied divisions became wider, to the extent that environmental health became connected with every other vital topic in community. All this requires the rehabilitation of the various institutions and the administrative and social organizations, to play their role in the building of a solid system of environmental health, especially under the impact of globalization.